Madrid was hailed as a public health beacon last November when it rolled out ambitious restrictions on the most polluting cars. Seven months and one election day later, a new conservative city council suspended enforcement of the clean air zone, a first step toward its possible demise.
Mayor Jose Luis Martinez -Almeida made opposition to the zone a centrepiece of his election campaign, despite its success in improving air quality. A judge has now overruled the city 's decision to stop levying fines, ordering them reinstated. But with legal battles ahead, the zone's future looks uncertain at best.
Among other weaknesses, the measures cities must employ when left to tackle dirty air on their own are politically contentious, and therefore vulnerable. That s because they inevitably put the costs of cleaning the air on to individual drivers一who must pay fees or buy better vehicles 一rather than on to the car manufacturers whose cheating is the real cause of our toxic pollution.
It's not hard to imagine a similar reversal happening in London. The new ultra-low emission zone (Ulez) is likely to be a big issue in next year's mayoral election. And if Sadiq Khan wins and extends it to the North and South Circular roads in 2021 as he intends, it is sure to spark intense opposition from the far larger number of motorists who will then be affected.
It's not that measures such as London's Ulez are useless. Far from it. Local officials are using the levers that are available to them to safeguard residents' health in the face of a serious threat. The zones do deliver some improvements to air quality, and the science tells us that means real health benefits - fewer heart attacks, strokes and premature births, less cancer, dementia and asthma. Fewer untimely deaths.
But mayors and councillors can only do so much about a problem that is far bigger than any one city or town. They are acting because national governments一Britain s and others across Europe - have failed to do so.
Restrictions that keep highly polluting cars out of certain areas - city centres, 。school streets", even individual roads - are a response to the absence of a larger effort to properly enforce existing regulations and require auto companies to bring their vehicles into compliance. Wales has introduced special low speed limits to minimise pollution. We re doing everything but insist that manufacturers clean up their cars.
31. Which of the following is true about Madrid's clean air zone?
[A] Its effects are questionable
[B]It has been opposed by a judge
[C] It needs tougher enforcement
[D] Its fate is yet to be decided
32. Which is considered a weakness of the city-level measures to tackle dirty air?
[A] They are biased against car manufacturers.
[B] They prove impractical for city councils.
[C] They are deemed too mild for politicians.
D] They put too much burden on individual motorists.
33. The author believes that the extension of London's Ulez will .
[A] arouse strong resistance.
[B] ensure Khan's electoral success.
[C] improve the city s traffic.
[D] discourage car manufacturing.
34. Who does the author think should have addressed the problem?
[A] Local residents
[D] National governments.
35. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that auto companies.
[A] will raise low-emission car production
[B]should be forced to follow regulations
[C] will upgrade the design of their vehicles
[D] should be put under public supervision
31.【答案】D Its fate is yet to be decided
解析：本题目为细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干关键词Madrid's clean air zone定位到前两段，首段说明背景Madrid's clean air zone的执行暂停。继续找第二段，尽管能够提高空气质量，但是市长表示反对。一位法官现在否决了该市停止征收罚款的决定，下令恢复原状。但随着法律斗争的进行，Madrid's clean air zone的未来看起来也不确定。正确答案D Its fate is yet to be decided它的命运尚未决定，是原文内容的替换表达。选项A的 Its effects are questionable.其效果值得怀疑。与原文内容相反，属于正反混淆。选项B的It has been opposed by a judge.它遭到法官的反对。文中法官反对的并不是Madrid's clean air zone，而是停止征收罚款的决定。选项C的It needs tougher enforcement.它需要更严格的执行。文中是执行已经停止，与原文内容不符，属于偷换概念。
32.【答案】D They put too much burden on individual motorists.
解析：本题目为细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干关键词a weakness of the city-level measures及tackle dirty air定位到第三段第二句：That’s because they inevitably put the costs of cleaning the air on to individual drivers—who must pay fees or buy better vehicles—rather than on to the car manufacturers whose heating is the real cause of our toxic pollution.这是因为他们不可避免地把清洁空气的费用转嫁给那些必须支付费用或购买更好车辆的司机，而不是汽车制造商，因为他们的供暖是造成我们有毒污染的真正原因。正确答案D They put too much burden on individual motorists.他们给个人驾车者增加了太多负担与原文内容一致。选项A的 They are biased again car manufactures.他们对汽车制造商有偏见，文中提到汽车制造商，却并未提到对其有无偏见，属于偷换概念。选项B的They prove impractical for city councils.这些措施对市议会来说是不切实际的。选项C的They are deemed too mild for politicians.他们被认为对政治家来说太温和了。定位段并未提到，属于无中生有。
33.【答案】A arouse strong resistance
解析：本题目为细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干关键词 extension和London’s Ulez定位到第四段：And if Sadiq Khan wins and extends it to the North and South Circular roads in 2021 as he intends, it is sure to spark intense opposition from the far larger number of motorists who will then be affected.如果 Sadiq Khan在2021年胜出，并按照他的意愿将其延伸至南北环路，肯定会引发更多驾车者的强烈反对，届时他们将受到影响。正确答案A arouse strong resistance引起强烈抵抗与原文内容一致。选项B的ensure Khans electoral success确保Khans选举成功，文中提到的是如果这个人赢了，属于偷换概念。选项C的 improve the city's traffic改善城市交通，定位段并未提到，属于无中生有。选项D的discourage car manufacturing抑制汽车制造业也并未在定位段提到，属于无中生有。
34.【答案】D National governments
解析：本题目为细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干信息，问的是作者的具体观点。定位到第六段：But mayors and councillors can only do so much about a problem that is far bigger than any one city or town. They are acting because national governments-Britain's and others across Europe- have failed to do so.但是市长和议员们只能对一个比任何一个城市或城镇都大得多的问题做这么多的工作。他们之所以采取行动，是因为英国和欧洲其他国家的政府未能做到这一点。正确答案D National governments作者认为国家政府应该解决这个问题，与原文内容一致。选项A的 Local residents当地居民，定位段并未提到，属于无中生有。选项B和C的mayors and councillors出现在定位句，但是与原文内容相反，属于正反混淆。
35. 【答案】B should be forced to follow regulations
解析：本题目为推断题，考察具体细节的推断。根据题干信息auto companies，定位到尾段首句：require auto companies to bring their vehicles into compliance要求汽车公司使其车辆符合要求。正确答案B should be forced to follow regulations应该被迫遵守规定，与原文信息一致。选项A的 will raise low-emission car production将提高低排放汽车产量，定位段并未提到，属于无中生有。选项C和D的will upgrade the design of their vehicles 和 should be put under public supervision将升级他们的车辆设计、应该接受公众监督在原文中没有相关信息。
Now that members of Generation Z are graduating college this springthe most commonly-accepted definition says this generation was bom after 1995, give or take a year-the attention has been rising steadily in recent weeks. GenZs are about to hit the streets looking for work in a labor market that's tighter than it's been in decades. And employers are planning on hiring about 17 percent more new graduates for jobs in the U.S. this year than last, according to a survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers. Everybody wants to know how the people who will soon inhabit those empty office cubicles will differ from those who came before them.
If"entitled"is the most common adjective, fairly or not, applied to millennials (those bom between 1981 and 1995), the catchwords for Generation Z are practical and cautious. According to the career counselors and expert who study them, Generation Zs are clear-eyed, economic pragmatists. Despite graduating into the best economy in the past 50 years, Gen Zs know what an economic train wreck looks like. They were impressionable kids during the crash of 2008, when many of their parents lost their jobs or their life savings or both. They aren,'t interested in taking any chances. The booming economy seems to have done little to assuage this underlying generational sense of anxious urgency, especially for those who have college debt. College loan balances in the U.S. now stand at a record $1.5 trillion, according to the Federal Reserve.
One survey from Accenture found that 88 percent of graduating seniors this year chose their major with a job in mind. In a 2019 survey of University of Georgia students, meanwhile, the career office found the most desirable trait in a future employer was the ability to offer secure employment (followed by professional development and training, and then inspiring purpose). Job security or stability was the second most important career goal (work-life balance was number one), followed by a sense of being dedicated to a cause or to feel good about serving the great good.
36. Generation Zs graduating college this spring_____.
[A] are recognized for their abilities
[B] are in favor of job offers
[C] are optimistic about the labor market
[D] are drawing growing public attention
37. Generation Zs are keenly aware_____.
[A] what a tough economic situation is like
[B] what their parents expect of them
[C] how they differ from past generations
[D] I how valuable a counselors advice is
38. The word"assuage"(line 9, para 2)is closet in meaning to_____.
[A]define [B]relieve [C] maintain [D] deepen
39.It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that Generation Zs_____.
[A] care little about their job performance
[B] give top priority to professional training
[C]think it hard to achieve work-Life balance
[D] have a clear idea about their future job
40 Michelsen thinks that compared with millennials, Generation Zs are_____.
[A]less realistic B] less adventurous [C]more diligent [D] more generous
36. 【C】are drawing growing public attention细节题。根据题干直接定位到文章根据提干第一段第一句话。信息选项中的“drawing growing public attention ”则对应到句中的“the attention has been rising steadily in recent weeks” (近几周的关注度在稳步提高)”，其中attention原词复现，rising和growing同义复现;而其他的选项则与最佳选项无缘，在定位区间中没有相应的对应信息。
37. 【B】what a tough economic situation is like;细节题。根据题干中询问Generation Z的特点我们来到第二段。题干中的aware直接定位到第二段第四行”Gen Zs know what an economic train wreck looks like（经济列车受到重创是什么样子的）”；信息选项中的“tough economic situation ”则对应到句中的“economic train wreck ”;而其他的选项则与最佳选项无缘，在定位区间中没有相应的对应信息。
38. 【C】relieve;猜词题。根据题干，可以定位到第九段第二句话：“The booming economy seems to have done little to assuage this underlying generational sense of anxious urgency, especially for those who have college debt”,所以解题的关键是判断”The booming economy（繁荣的经济）”和”generational sense of anxious urgency（代际焦虑）”的关系；根据常识判断，繁荣的经济可以降低求职者的焦虑；再结合上一道题我们知道，Gen Zs是务实和谨慎（practical and cautious）的一代；由此可以得出繁荣的经济并未降低求职者的焦虑，原文已有并未（have done little）,选项B中的relieve（减轻）与我们的判断一致，因此答案为C。而其它的选项A define（定义），B maintain（保持），deepen（加深）和我们的判断都不一致。
39. 【A】have a clear idea about their future jobs; 推断题。题目中明确出题段落(from Paragraph 3)。因此，第三段的第一句chose their major with a job in mind(按照自己的理想工作选择专业)和选项D have a clear idea about their future jobs（对自己的未来工作有明确认识）相符合。根据原文中的第二句话（未来雇主最重要的特性是工作的稳定性，第二位是职业发展与培训，第三位是吸引人的目标）排除答案A和B；选项C并未体现。
40. 【B】less adventurous;细节题。题干中的compared with millennials定位到文章第二段：the catch words for Gen Zs are practical and cautious(Gen Zs的口号是务实和谨慎)；由此判断出选项B不爱冒险为正确答案。其余均与原文不不符。